A surface grinder is a machine tool used in abrasive machining operations for producing a sharp, polished or honed edge from metal surfaces. It is often used in the finishing process of aluminum and stainless steel, to obtain a mirror like finish on the surface of these metals. It is also used to create a smooth, flat finish on non-ferrous flat surfaces, such as copper. It is an extensively used rough abrasive machining method where a rotating cutting wheel attached to a chuck with a grinding drum makes multiple passes over a workpiece, producing a rough, flat or mirror like surface of it. There are different types of abrasives the grinding wheel can be used on; it depends upon the type of material to be printed.
The abrasives used in grinders differ according to their compositions. The most commonly used in a surface grinder machine is a custom bearings machine, which can provide a range of 4H groups. Other types include belt Sanders, vibratory machines, and a roller jack. These various types of equipment can be operated either electrically or mechanically.
When operating electrically, the electromagnetic chuck produces a work piece at high accuracy using only one alignment path, called the work area. The work piece is placed into the chuck and aligned automatically, before the workpiece is moved into the grinding wheel. With mechanical machinery, a two-dimensional alignment system is used, which aligns the workpiece to the magnetic field. This works in a similar way to a screw jack. To use the above described method of operation, the machine must have a working guide similar to a drill press or lathe.
A major advantage in mechanical surface grinders over electrical ones is that they do not need an external power source. All the required electric current for the motor needs to come from inside the machine, therefore cutting down on the size and weight of the machine. The electrical connection in surface grinders needs to be run through the machine’s motor housing, thus reducing both the size and weight. It makes sense to use a smaller motor, when the machine can achieve a higher precision level.
Grinding wheels can either be made of metal alloys or diamond alloys, depending on the type of workpiece to be finished. The workpiece can be moved into the chuck and aligned manually, before the workpiece is moved into the grinding wheel. In this way, the workpiece does not need to be jostled around by the grinding wheel. The friction from the abrasive wheel against the workpiece also reduces the wear and tear of the workpiece. Precision surface grinder machine is used for a wide range of finishing processes such as polishing, abrasive blasting, drilling, polishing, grinding, turning, etc.
The type of workholding device used with the surface grinder depends on the type of work to be carried out. Most abrasive wheel and chuck have a threaded seat, which fits into a chuck head. Some workholders have a single sliding plate that slides into the chuck and a single sliding seat. However, some workholders have two sliding plates and one fixed chuck seat.